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Questioning - the world we live in. How can we collaborate in shaping a sustainable future? How can science and art as social systems not only cooperate but also monitor themselves? How can we check our own research questions, methods of work and areas of impact?
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THE THEME OF THE MONTH (Jan/Jun 2015): »Soft Power. Artistic and activist strategies against life-patents and for the democratization of science«


Soft Power

Soft Power Exhibition. Vitoria-Gasteiz, 2009 and Bilbao 2010. All images of this article are out of the: Soft Power catalogue.

 

 

Soft Power

Boryana Rossa, "Bootleg Garden".

 

Soft Power

subRosa, "Epidemic! DIY Cell Lab".

 

Soft Power

subRosa, "Bodies Unlimited".

 

Soft Power

Erwin Wagenhofer, "We feed the world".

 

Soft power

Selection of projects in Soft Power (by Bureau d´Etudes, subRosa, Boryana Rossa, Rachel Mayeri, Sally Gutierrez).


»Soft Power. Artistic and activist strategies against life-patents and for the democratization of science«
Maria Ptqk


Soft Power is a series of cultural activities on the crossroads of cultural critique and biotechnology that took place in Bilbao and Vitoria (Bask Country, Spain) between 2009 and 2010. Along with the exhibition - featuring artworks by subRosa, Rachel Mayeri, Bureau d´Études, Sally Gutierrez and Boryanna Rossa – there were screenings, workshops and discussions – with the participation of thinkers and activists like queer philosopher Beatriz Preciado – as well as a documentary installation on The Critical Art Ensemble Defense Fund, to support member of the collective and bio-art pioneer Steve Kurtz, accused of bioterrorism by the FBI (and eventually found innocent after 4 years of litigation)[1] .

The goal of the project was to show a comprehensive picture of the topics that arise when we look at the intersection of scientific knowledge and what we call “nature” from an artistic and cultural perspective: topics that range from ecology to agriculture, food politics, the pharmaceutical industry, health care, gender identity or the future of genetics. Soft Power tried to show how artists, thinkers or activists contribute to the public debate on scientific innovations that affect our daily life, shaping the way we eat, the way we relate to aging, what we consider to be an ill body (and what not) or what we perceive as being “natural” or “alive”. It also intended to show how artists (but also writers or cultural researchers) often go beyond the given scenario of scientific research by their use of metaphors, language, imaginery, figurations or myths that are at the core of scientific culture but are not often regarded as such.

In the program, special light was put into bio-patents and the extension of intellectual property rights on living organisms, mainly through the works of Boryanna Rossa and the cyberfeminist collective subRosa. In “Bootleg Garden”[2] , Boryana Rossa ironically compares the clandestine traffic of cultural goods in Bulgaria during the communist era (such as records, considered as a perverse capitalistic influence) with the apparently innocent act of extracting seeds and growing them in a domestic garden. If the seeds are in any way issued of transgenic manipulation, they are very likely to be patented and thus commercialized under the sign “Reproduction Prohibited”.

subRosa´s work “Cell Track. Mapping the Appropriation of Live Materials”[3] , also presented in Soft Power, is an installation and documentary website pointing at bio-patents that apply directly to the human body, such as the gene thought to be responsible of breast cancer (patented by Myriad and OncorMed) or the one thought to be responsible of AIDS infection (patented by the private organization Human Genome Sciences) or the entire genome of a 26-year-old woman from Panama (patented by an anonymous researcher). As stated in their website, subRosa´s main purpose is to question propietary science practices, but also, ultimately, to imagine “the feasibility of a public embryonic stem cell bank of non-patented, non-propietary stem cell-lines that could be made available to amateur artists, independent scientists and non-profit researchers conducting experimental or contestational research in and for the public domain”.

For some, like indian activist Vandana Shiva, life-patents constitute a form of bio-piracy that pursue, by other means, the history of colonization. According to international organizations, whereas 95% of the world genetic resources are located in South and Central America, Africa and Asia, 97% of patents belong to companies from Europe and the United States. “Patents” - says Shiva - “are a replay of colonization as it took place 500 years ago in a number of ways. Interestingly, Columbus and other adventurers like him set out with pieces of paper that were called the letters patent which gave the power to the adventurers to claim as property the territory they found anywhere in the world that was not ruled by white Christian princes. Contemporary patents on life seem to be of a similar quality. They are pieces of paper issued by patent offices of the world that basically are telling corporations that if there's knowledge or living material, plants, seeds, medicines which the white man has not known about before, claim it on our behalf, and make profits out of it”[4] .

To restraint the patent of its natural resources, the Indian government is creating open repositories of local know-how regarding seeds, plants, traditional medicine and agriculture, such as The Traditional Knowledge Digital Library (for medicinal plants) or The Honey Bee Network (for indigenous knowledge). The aim is to prevent foreign companies to plead for the ownership of this resources, granting it to the local communities. But these open repositories, based on the logic of open-access, don´t really question the legitimacy of property rights over living organisms, only their attribution. Another strategy, that on the contrary does question the legitimacy of bio-patents, relies on the use of the concept of commons or “Common Heritage of Humankind”, as expressed in the “Treaty Initiative to Share the Genetic Commons”[5] . According to it, “the nations of the world declare the Earth’s gene pool, in all of its biological forms and manifestations, to be a global commons, to be protected and nurtured by all peoples and further declare that genes and the products they code for, in their natural, purified or synthesized form as well as chromosomes, cells, tissue, organs and organisms, including cloned, transgenic and chimeric organisms, will not be allowed to be claimed as commercially negotiable genetic information or intellectual property by governments, commercial enterprises, other institutions or individuals”.

Inspired by this Treaty, subRosa propose in “Cell Track” their own particular contribution: “The Manifesto for a Post-Genome World”, a utopian but yet deeply serious and political vision on how things could actually look like in the scientific realm. It includes statements like: “The Post Genome World welcomes a creative and experimental public science engaged in publicly funded, openly shared, and non-patented, bio-genetic research. The Post Genome World respects the integrity of a multiplicity of bodies of traditional knowledge in science, agriculture, and medicine, and the common use and free sharing of that knowledge for the benefit of all. The Post Genome World acknowledges that the intellectual production and knowledge of African-Americans, Chicanos, and Native Americans in the United States, and of Indigenous and minoritarian peoples around the world (both as individuals and as communities) has rarely been respected and valued. Therefore the Post Genome World supports the various demands for some form of Reparations for this stolen knowledge and production.”

But probably the most radical response to life-patents is to be found in the Constitution of Ecuador, signed in 2008. Is states that Ecuador is a free-transgenic country, bans the patent of any kind of material originated and developed by collective knowledge and includes an entire section on “the rights of nature”. But its main innovation is to introduce into a legal instrument coming from Western modern tradition indigenous concepts like pachamama[6] and sumak kawsay[7] . This has several implications. First, the indigenous cosmovision on nature is located at the center of the legal system of Ecuador, implying a first-order political recognition. Second, it expresses a critical shift of paradigm, from Human-centered to Bio-centered. Whereas in the Western tradition, the protection of nature is conceived around human rights (the right to a healthy environment, the right to access and use natural resources, etc.), in the indigenous perspective nature is to be protected for its own sake, set aside human needs or desires.

The Constitution of Ecuador manifests a clash of paradigms that is a common issue for science-related arts. How to integrate different fields of knowledge? How to share experiences and traditions that rely on completely different languages, backgrounds, practices and methodologies? How to create spaces for mutual recognition between experts coming from different disciplines? And between fields of knowledge that rely on different understandings of expertise? In fact, the question of interdisciplinarity or knowledge hybridization is directly linked to the one of authority. Who is allowed to say what? Is the artist allowed to reflect on science? Is the scientist allowed to think and work artistically? Is the public (by definition, a non-expert) allowed to speak?

Claire Pentecost – artist, writer and long-time collaborator of bio-art collective Critical Art Ensemble – proposes an interesting answer in her research project The Public Amateur. “One of the things I’m attached to is learning”, she says. “And one of the models I’ve developed theoretically is that of the artist as the public amateur. Not the public intellectual, which is usually a position of mastery and critique, but the public amateur, a position of inquiry and experimentation. The amateur is the learner who is motivated by love or by personal attachment, and in this case, who consents to learn in public so that the very conditions of knowledge production can be interrogated. The public amateur takes the initiative to question something in the province of a discipline in which she is not conventionally qualified, acquires knowledge through unofficial means, and assumes the authority to offer interpretations of that knowledge, especially in regard to decisions that affect our lives”[8] .

Soft Power, as a cultural program founded by public means, has been deeply inspired by this perspective. More than showcasing the most prominent artists and thinkers, its main purpose was to provide the participants with an open and friendly atmosphere that would allow them to become passionate amateurs, to question the way scientific knowledge is actually being produced and disseminated and to “learn in public” on technical innovations that affect their everyday lives. In short, to provide a platform for the democratization of science.

* This text is the short English version of the paper “Biopatentes. El cercamiento de lo vivo” published in Teknokultura: Journal of Digital Culture and Social Movements Vol 10, No 1 (2013): http://www.mariaptqk.net/wp-content/uploads/2013/11/Biopatentes-Teknocultura.pdf

3. Further information: http://refugia.net/celltrack/

4. Vandana Shiva interviewed in “InMotion” Magazine. Full interview: http://www.inmotionmagazine.com/shiva.html

5. World Social Forum, Porto Alegre, 2002.

6. Pachamama is usually identified with Nature, Mother Earth or, more generally, the main principle structuring Indigenous cosmovision. The Constitution of Ecuador defines it as the reproduction and realization of life.

7. Sumak kawsay is a meaning a Kichwa expression commonly translated in Spanish as “Buen Vivir” (full life, in English).

8. Claire Pentecost interviewed in “Future Non Stop. A Living Archive for Digital Culture in Theory and Practice”. Full interview: http://future-nonstop.org/c/ca69656fff0a0fb28ee6f3ab64c2e6c8

 

Maria ptqk

Maria ptqk - Researcher and cultural critic. Degree in law, with specialization in economics, holds an Advanced Studies Diploma in Law of Culture, and is currently writing her thesis at the Faculty of Fine Arts at the UPV-EHU. She is professionally engaged in the arts sector since 2000, developing, producing, curating, writing critiques, managing and coordinating projects. Her areas of interest include new media and digital culture, social communication, the intersections between art and technoscience, new formats of knowledge production derived from the network culture, feminism and gender studies, as well as cultural policies and the promotion of innovation and creativity. more


THE ARCHIVE PROJECTS and THEMES of the area of activity "Questioning" 2014

Haben und BrauchenSeptember 2014

THE THEME OF THE MONTH (Sep/Dec 2014): »Concept for a longer-term process of dialogue between independent and institutional actors of contemporary art and the Berlin Senate.«
Haben und Brauchen, berufsverband bildender künstler berlin e.V. (bbk)

Since 2011, the discussion and action platform Haben und Brauchen (to have and to need) questions the living and production conditions for artists and related professionals in Berlin. On May 10, 2011 Haben und Brauchen presented the Kultursenat "A Roadmap for the Development Plan of the Art City of Berlin", the art plan in short. This document pointed to the need to conduct a continuous non-partisan dialogue between the Senate, the independent scene and representatives of Berliner art institutions. Under the title "K2" a dialogue session was held on November 15, 2012, with representatives of all factions of the Berlin contemporary art scene, artists, the independent scene, public institutions and the art market in order to develop a common Leitbild (guideline) for the Arts in Berlin, and to derive fields of action for the cultural funding policy of the Senate. In what follows, the first concept draft of the art plan for a long-term dialogue process is presented, which was concieved in a collective writing process finished in June 2014. (German) more

COPYnPASTEdetail

May 2014

THE PROJECT OF THE MONTH (Mai/Aug 2014): »What about the exploitation rights for knowledge contributions of volunteers in research projects?« Sophie-Isabell Idel.

Do students or citizen scientists who participated in a research project have any exploitation rights? The comparison of different examples like the citizen science project STAR@DUST or the COPY’N’PASTE exhibition and contest of the University of Lüneburg give insight into the current situation in practice. (German) more

This contribution arose from the seminar "Research arts - Research at the interface of art, science and technology", which was held at the Leuphana University, Lüneburg in WS/2013-14.

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January 2014

THE THEME OF THE MONTH (Jan/Apr 2014):
»Transition Formats - How do we share visionens, knowledge and experience?«
Stella Veciana.

Slowly but steadily more and more academics and community activists are self-organizing in Transition Research groups. While engaging in this transformative processes, not only the research contents get questioned, but also the formats of exchange. New »transition formats« are needed and actualy developed in manifold ways at face to face events as well as at online plattforms. (German) more

PROJECTS and THEMES of the area of activity "Questioning" 2013

PetzerFreiheitSeptember 2013

THE THEME OF THE MONTH (Sep/Dec 2013): »Bringing storytelling into life«. Pia Lanzinger’s Aesthetics of Commoning. Stella Veciana in conversation with Pia Lanzinger.

Since the nineties, public participation processes and storytelling are the artistic work strategy of Pia Lanzinger. With her expanded art formats and her creative transfer of diverse methods from the social sciences and humanities into the public sphere, she has applied different levels of participation in a variety of urban and rural contexts. These approaches represent an emergent artistic practice of commoning. (German) more

TresPiezasMay 2013

THE PROJECT OF THE MONTH (Mai/Aug 2013): »Three Pieces for Street Sweepers. From the Invisible to the Visible«. Pia Lanzinger.
In the historic center of Mexico City, three stages were set up on which three performances with barrenderos (street sweepers) took place. The street wheepers, whose usual job is removing the garbage thatt collects in the area, receive as little attention in public space as the problem of refuse itself, which already poses insurmountable obstacles for the city. The performances suspend this tendency to invisibility for a few moments during which the street wheepers, who largely conceptualized their own pieces, present themselves as individuals, with their own perspectives and cultural aspirations. more

MPotrc_dez12
January 2013

THE PROJECT OF THE MONTH (Jan/Apr 2013): The "Shared Space" of the cities - the artistic strategy of Marjetica Potrč. Stella Veciana. - Potrč not only questions our notions of the city but also how we want to live within this "shared space". Furthermore, the artist creates concrete areas of interaction where neighbours can creatively implement their visions for the city. With her projects she raises an artistic strategy from the perspective of the commons, shedding new light upon the "town system" and the "art system". The classic "art object" becomes a "relational object" and the utopian social sculpture of Beuys becomes something useful in the mundane world of the city gardener. This article also discusses what possible questions might become relevant to science. more

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